Category Archives: Discussion paper

Radical and extreme right wing parties and the working class in Germany.

Titelblatt-Dikussionbeitrag_PartidosAuthor: Karsten Krüger
Year: 2019
This article is only available in Spanish.

Abstract: The countries of the European Union show a clear trend towards the acceptance of radical or extreme right options such as the. In Germany, as in Spain, this political phenomenon has appeared later than in other European countries. However, a series of German studies shows that the positions and attitudes typified as belonging to the extreme right have been present in society still for a long time. These attitudes are not limited to the political spectrum of the radical and extreme right, but also standing at the centre of the society.
Consequently, the working class and the trade unions are also sensitive to this political option. In the analysis of the phenomenon of the radical and extreme right, the theory of the losers and winners of modernization has special relevance not only referring to the objective socio-economic or cultural situation, but also to the subjective perceptions of individuals (such as pessimism respect to their personal situation or the fear of loss of control).
However, in relation to socio-economic changes, this theory shows itself limited. In the best of cases, it explains why the social strata identified as the “losers” have a greater tendency towards these parties, but not why persons form other social strata chose this option. Another point that should be criticized of the winners-losers theory is that they do not sufficiently emphasize that this is a long-term phenomenon, which at least in the Federal Republic of Germany dates back to the 1950s. The irrelevance of the extreme-right political parties in parliamentary life in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and 2000s did not signify that the respective attitudes had disappeared from West German society, but were simply camouflaged as a tendency within the dominant conservative parties or remained a very minority position in the extra-parliamentary opposition. This article, which is not an empirical study but is based on a review of specialised literature, documents of the radical right party AfD and analysis of the votes of the AfD in the recent elections, speaks about this and more.

Dual studies in university higher education

Titelblatt-Dikussionbeitrag_Estudios dualesAuthors: Karsten Krüger & Alba Molas & Laureano Jiménez
Year: 2019
Abstract: One of the major expressions of this structural change is the curricular reform towards a three-cycle structure (the so-called Bologna Process) that has been implemented in European countries. One of the objectives was the higher labour orientation at the bachelor, contributing to a increase the employability of graduates, which implies a more pronounced vocational orientation. This trend is reflected in the creation of specific higher education programmes with long periods spent at the work place, such as dual studies (e.g., Germany and Austria), alternating programmes (France, ‘Alternance Programmes’), or industrial doctorates/masters programmes (Spain). In recent years, efforts to develop and implement dual studies in higher education have intensified, as shown by the cases of England, Scotland and the Basque Country (Spain).
This article will discuss the question whether the university is prepared to create dual study programs and implement them by asking:
a) Which is the role of the academic tutor and the professional mentor in companies, the two key figures to guarantee the quality of dual studies.
b) Which are the difficulties in developing dual programmes within the framework of official degrees.
These issues are addressed through work carried out in two projects of the European programme Erasmus+. After the short definition of what is understood as dual studies, we emphasize the role of academic tutor and professional mentor to exemplify the increasing complexity of managing such programmes ensuring high quality of learning and we summarise the possibilities to extend dual studies in the Spanish university system, using the experience obtained from the strategy for dual studies in the Basque Country.

Investigación e Innovación Responsable. Un elemento de la gobernanza del complejo científico-tecnológico europeo

Author: Karsten Krüger
Year: 2018
[Responsible Research and Innovation. An Element of the Gobernance of the European scientific-technology Complex]
There is only a Spanish version avaibable.
Resume: The concept ‘Responsible research and innovation’ is a new element in the steering of the European scientific-technological complex. This essay discusses this concept and frames it in the current science and innovation strategy of the European Union studying essentially relevant political documents and article about this topic.
The first chapter presents the thesis of the retreatment of the state as central steering and regulation actor in crucial societal area. The second chapter gives an overview of works about historical changes in the scientific-technological complex. It is followed by an analysis of the restructuration of the scientific and technical complex in the European Union, which is accompanied by a mayor role of enterprises and economic associations in the design and management of the public funded research. In the fourth chapter the concept RRI is presented as a potential central steering element in the scientific-technological complex. It could evolve to an instrument to accredit research organisations, regulating so the access to public research funds. Here it is argued that the concept RRI reflect that it is impossible to evaluate the scientific-technological complex based on short or midterm results, due to the complexity of the transfer process of scientific knowledge into social relevant and usable knowledge and the respective high uncertainty of the scientific research. In stead, RRI propose to evaluate the quality of the innovation process itself.