Authors: Baumgartl, Bernd & Mariani, Michele
The book resumes national studies carried out in the course of the project NESOR (New Social Risk in the European knowledge society and higher education). This project, cofounded by the European Union through the Socrates programme, analysed the question about the role and profile of Higher Education Institutions (HEI’s) in the European knowledge society. It provides a rich picture on the state-of-the art of the implementation of the Bologna Process and asks for future role of EU higher education institutions in the European knowledge society, especially with respect to social inclusion and sustainable economical development.
After a few years from the launching of the Bologna Process, it has produced different impacts on the different national educational systems, along with different economical and social consequences. Furthermore, the transition towards the European Knowledge Society is proceeding at quite a different pace among the participant countries partly in response to the diverse degrees in which knowledge-based activities are present in the national economies and the importance concede to knowledge as a long-run growth factor.
The transformation of the labour markets has deepened inequalities, between least skilled workers and high-skilled ones. This creates new social risks and calls for proactive strategies also by Higher Education Institutions. To face contemporary challenges, contribute to social cohesion and sustainable economical development, EU higher education institutions must further engage as active agents in the creation of the future society. Curricular adaptations, lifelong learning, assistance in the transition of the education system from education to learning, provision of equal opportunities for all, are all relevant and challenging tasks which definitely are part of the contemporary role of EU Universities.
Author: Karsten Krüger
[Responsible Research and Innovation. An Element of the Gobernance of the European scientific-technology Complex]
There is only a Spanish version avaibable.
Resume: The concept ‘Responsible research and innovation’ is a new element in the steering of the European scientific-technological complex. This essay discusses this concept and frames it in the current science and innovation strategy of the European Union studying essentially relevant political documents and article about this topic.
The first chapter presents the thesis of the retreatment of the state as central steering and regulation actor in crucial societal area. The second chapter gives an overview of works about historical changes in the scientific-technological complex. It is followed by an analysis of the restructuration of the scientific and technical complex in the European Union, which is accompanied by a mayor role of enterprises and economic associations in the design and management of the public funded research. In the fourth chapter the concept RRI is presented as a potential central steering element in the scientific-technological complex. It could evolve to an instrument to accredit research organisations, regulating so the access to public research funds. Here it is argued that the concept RRI reflect that it is impossible to evaluate the scientific-technological complex based on short or midterm results, due to the complexity of the transfer process of scientific knowledge into social relevant and usable knowledge and the respective high uncertainty of the scientific research. In stead, RRI propose to evaluate the quality of the innovation process itself.
Editors: Karsten Krüger & Erik de Gier
Abstract: One of the European Union’s major concerns is its ageing population, and the need to develop a social and economic strategy able to meet this demographic challenge. One of the key issues is the care for elderly and dependent people. This question goes to the core of the European Social Protection system. But it is difficult to define exactly what care and care services for dependent people means. Traditionally a distinction has been made between health care and social care. For several reasons, these boundaries are blurred and a more integrated perspective comes up advocating the concept of long-term care, defined by the OECD as “the organisation and delivery of a broad range of services and assistance to people who are limited in their ability to function independently on a daily basis over an extended period of time”.
Long-term care systems are characterised by the diversity of the providers, of the institutional and organisational settings, and of the sources of funding. With regard to social care, the EUROFOUND made a rough distinction between waged carers and non-waged carers.
Only this distinction indicates yet that long-term care systems have complex configurations, combining different types of formal care with a wide range of informal care.
The long-term care systems of the EU-member states are under pressure from four quarters:
a) The improvement in the health of European populations has increased life expectancy. The over 65-year and the over-85 age groups have grown considerably in recent decades and will continue to do so in the future. Inevitably, this raised and will raise the demand for care for older people.
b) The family structure has changed all over Europe, towards a model characterised by smaller double breadwinner families. And as female members have traditionally taken responsibility for family care, the growing incorporation of women in the labour market increases the demand for formal carers.
c) The EU population in working age is decreasing, thus raising competition for labour between different economic sectors. This can be mitigated, but not resolved, by immigration. But low paid work and low labour status combined with high responsibilities make the care work not very attractive.
d) The retrenchment of the welfare state since the 1990s and the increasing public budget restrictions in EU-member states have made the funding of high quality national care systems even more difficult.
The multiple demographic changes exert pressure on the care service sector to respond to the increasing demand for professionalised care services. There is a lack of qualified labour to satisfy this demand, and there are strong public budget restrictions as well.
The problem of providing high quality care service is related on the one hand to the increase in the demand for care, and on the other to the labour shortage. But at the same time, long-term care is one of the sectors in which the most employment is created.
This book brings together articles by authors from four European countries (Finland, Germany, the Netherlands and Spain) which reflect trends in the search for new combinations between institutional, family and community agents to provide high quality long-term care services. The articles also show the diversity of the national landscapes of care services as well as the variety of possible solutions.
Editor: Karsten Krüger
Resume: In the framework of the EU-Socrates Program the NESOR-consortium, consisting of partners of six EU-member states, carries out from 2006 to 2008 a project aimed at examining national approaches of the reforms in higher education under the aegis of the Bologna and Copenhagen Declarations, as well as, at detecting the role of higher education in the European social model of the emerging knowledge society. This can be resumed in the following research questions divided into two blocks:
This number of the Volume 3 of the dia-e-logos – Journal for Social Science was published in 2008 presenting the results of the research undertaken in Austria, Hungary, Italy, the Netherland, Poland and Spain. It focused on the questions: What are the main characteristics of the European social model, which are the varieties of the national social models and which function is given education and especially higher education in these models?
For technical reasons, the articles of the journal were not available in the Internet. The editorial board of dia-e-logos decided to republish the article in one joint publication considering that the questions, which NESOR addressed, have not lost relevance. On the contrary in times of societal stress caused by the Covid 19 and political decision, the questions are even more relevant.