Authors: Krüger, K.; Molas. A. & Jiménez, L.
Resume: The report described the Spanish and Catalan Innovation systems in general and in the knowledge fields of economy and energy. The analysis suggests a dual system: on one side, there is the triple helix subsystem with universities, research centres, technology centres and enterprises, in which other actors – from the quadruple helix – are only intervening sporadically. This sub-system is steered by a complex net of public bodies and public bodies under private law, in which the enterprises have gain relevance. Other actors including cities has low relevance in this subsystem. On the other side, there is the smart subsystem mainly formed by cities and enterprises, with a low participation of universities and research centres.
In this twofold system, the Catalan universities are developing manifold actions in the fields of social compromises, gender equality and ethics, but not integrated in the concept of responsible research and innovation. They developed this action in the frame of alternative concepts as ‘University Social Responsibility’ (USR), ‘HR Excellence in Research Award’, and the UN Sustainable Goals.
Although the step forward done by the Catalan public universities in consolidation of a triple helix system, a lack in the progress towards quadruple helix configuration with a higher participation of society in the sense of empowerment of the citizens is observed. Steps were made in the dimension of social compromise, gender equality and ethics, but not within the frame of RRI. So far, there is a considerable margin to advance in the implementation of RRI in the Spanish and Catalan R&D system, for which the development and test of training modules could be a substantial support.